Why were the Mongols so effective?

Why were the Mongols so effective?


The Mongols created the largest land empire before the rise of the British Empire. The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the largest continuous land Empire that has so far existed. At its greatest extent, it stretched from Korea to Hungary including – except for India and the southeast of the continent – most of Asia as well as a good deal of Eastern Europe as a As a whole it lasted for well over a century and parts of it survived for very much longer. Hence, the question is how and why were they so effective in both military and political affairs? The first element that often comes to mind is the Mongol speed and mobility. Since basically every Mongol was trained to ride from an early age on the Mongols were experts in horseback riding. Similarly, they regularly had to move all their possessions over long distances. As such many aspects of a military campaign for them were not particularly different from their regular life. Additionally the Mongol tribes usually fought among themselves if they were not united under one can. Thus warfare was also a common element in their lives as such the Mongols possessed both tactical and operational speed which allowed them to outflank, encircle and/or surprise their enemies. For high mobility a key element were the Mongols’ horses. As such the Mongols brought along spare horses during campaigns Each Mongol went on campaign with a string of several horses. The number quoted varies, but something [on] the order of five horses per man would seem not to have been unusual. At least one author notes that the Mongols preferred riding mares since they would provide milk. Another factor Is that the Mongolian horses were smaller and known for the hardness and frugality. [Bernard S.] Bachrach notes that the Mongolian horses were grass fed and not straw-fed like most European horses thus requiring mostly a pasture and not [loads of] other fodder. As such the logistical requirements were reduced as long as there was enough grass. Yet, this dependency on grass could be an issue as well, since the Mongol horses were less suited to provide it with other fodder. …and some argue that mongols failed in Syria to due the lack of proper pastures there. Furthermore the speed of the Mongol forces caused be used to deceive the enemy in terms of numerical superiority. Modern scholars usually assumed the following size for Ghengis Khan’s Army: “…in theory at least the strength of the pull a mongolian component of chingus khan’s army arranged between 105 thousand and one hundred twenty-nine thousand if this was in stark contrast to what outsiders reported at the time Chronically is riding from outside the Mongol Empire tentacles much higher figures Touzani variously reports Chinggis Khaan army the detect the Kaurava Zhongshan is being 700 to 800 thousand strong The mum look for Teamcenter at al omari Estimated the number of soldiers on the register of the ill cannot in his days 200 to 300 thousand both morning and checks an argue that this Overestimation likely was caused by the Mongols mobility and additional the use of deception techniques as well This was not only done on operational but also done tactical level the mounting of dummies and spare horses the device sometimes used could have defect on the battlefield of Multiplying the apparent size of the army and increasing the terror in the hearts of the enemy soldiers The second major factor for the Mongols success is the daily routine was similar to a constant military training Which was also recognized by contemporary authors every adult male was warrior both Yanni and the Latin missionary William of Rubik recognized this similarly Morgan notes the nature of nomadic Society on the steppe was such that to speak of the Mongol armies really no more than to speak of the Mongol people in one of its natural aspects But a whole of life was a process of military training the same techniques that were necessary for survival in a herding and hunting Environment were with very little adaptation those used in warfare Let’s look at hunting first, which is mentioned by several authors Now likely the first association many heavy hunting is tracking down enemies and shooting with the bow Although the ball was a crucial button. The principles most denoted by offers with hunting work disappear and coordination the ability of commanders to coordinate effectively the movement of major formations on the battlefield was another hallmark of the Mongolian military machine this maneuverability was achieved by frequent peacetime exercise Usually in the form of vast handing expeditions in which the army participated as units And it was also a matter of discipline Discipline was strictly enforced within the Mongol army Generally off a stretch the strict discipline was obligated and then it was enforced with severe Punishment as such the death penalty was common Additionally rewards were distributed as well to encourage proper behavior For combat operations this man that Mongolian field commanders were expected to adhere strictly to prearranged operational plans If a unit failed to appear at the proper place at the specific time, its commanding officer was promptly punished No matter what the excuse offered Discipline was also crucial or not a fact that it is less exciting and particularly unglamorous, you know the dreaded l word Logistics and quite unsurprisingly the Mongols mastered this crucial element of warfare as well Similar to many other points here it resulted from the monomeric Lifestyle and particularly the activity of herding the Mongols possessed various kinds of animals the five most important were in this order horses sheep camels cattle and goats Each of them require different attention and was used for specific Aspects and such the frequent control movement of the herds in search of water and Farah was neither aimless No unbounded it was a well-established animal cycle from spring to summer to winter camp Additionally the force or better the herd composition was not straightforward Because the herds were complex composed of animals with different rates of movement and divergent food and water Requirements the herd at migration time had to make very fine calculations concerning daily distances traveled route staking anticipated better conditions and the like to accommodate the desperate needs of his species any major migration of the complex hoods together with people possessions was thus a complicated problem in logistics requiring careful planning and execution Training that the Mongols were later put to good use in the far-ranging military campaigns Now it’s very important to add that the Mongols were not pure Normans Several scholars note that pure nomadism is mainly a construct checks and points out that the Mongols required grain manufacture good especially weapons furs fish and other products This of course also implies that the Mongols had an awareness of the limited of self-sufficiency And as they also likely counted for acquiring various goods as well Now if you’re not into logistics I can recommend to you this video for my second channel wider Verma was a combat effective anyway back to the Mongols and not a key aspect as long time for use of this channel Well know his organization the Mongol armies were organized among several different aspects probably most known one is the decimal organization this meant that units were established along the lines of multiples of 10 as such an Alamo stoop of 10 men a yagong consisted of 10 r1 thus 100 men a Ming Han consisted of tenure goon toss thousand men and Finally a two men consisted. You guessed it of tank Ming ham thus ten thousand man Most office knows the Ming. Hen was the most important unit Although as always with authorized ranks in reality. There was likely quite some discrepancy So straightforward and uniform a system was no table convenient The one may wonder how many units actually had the precise round number of man that they were supposed to have Why anything like it in you and China humans were classified into toads with seven thousand five thousand and three thousand man This decimal system had a long tradition yet It was used on a far larger scale but Chinggis Khaan than before and used for the reorganization of the mongol army along effectiveness Loyalty and solidarity the imposition of the decimal system afore The king is can an opportunity to undermine tribal authority and morality and to replace it to some extent with military discipline and solidarity old enemies such as the Tatas carry yet and Neyman were systematic broken up as tribal groups and assigned piecemeal to composite units of 1,000 or Distributed as dependents of mayhem made of other people’s as such the reorganization provided all the social control What is more the reform was a defeat for a complex? Traditional division of forces based on clan and family bonds as well as for social and economic connections of particular warriors Nord is very important here that some tribes are mostly kept intact in the old structures namely those that had demonstrated reality Before to chinnese can this tribal? Reorganization was also along the lines of establishing a more centralized inferior structure Which would self can for exhibiting control over the army and his empire for this the guard called Kashyyyk was created by Chinggis Khaan the Kashyyyk made up of conquerors to on companions not only protected chingus khan’s person and performed the numerous duties associated with Imperial Household it also function is a training core for those given command in the military at large and Hence in this early phase employed in governing the Empire as such the guard accompanied it the can constantly Thus the central government of the early Mongolian state in a sense. The Imperial Guard was located wherever it sovereign chose to a light Since we covered logistics and organization already It is not time to move to the more famous and usually highly overrated cousin namely the military historians equivalent of pickuplines tactics Cherrylle, and the mongols used light and heavy cavalry The first principle weapons was the composite bow whereas the later was armored and used as main weapon lances Thus a regular engagement threw off the round the following method the light cavalry did not usually engage the enemy at close quarters instead they rode across the front wrong ranks with valiant arrows or if he was Advancing with two ahead of him and shot over their shoulders with equal accuracy When he had opened his ranks and left him disorganized the broker way onto either flank Leaving the front clear for the heavy cavalry to drive in blow Another approach was to faint flight. This was performed by the man who died the suicide drugs Although more an honor to the courage and not as a job description They would move ahead of the army and engage the enemy and then break ranks and flee This route convinced the enemy to pursue them during an extended pursuit The enemy would tie out and disperse his army by the mongols would lead them to the main army the persuading the flight and heavy cavalry units that would engage first with arrows and then Charge the remaining forces Now, let’s move to the next factor previously I mentioned that the key element was the high discipline of the Mongol army or checks and notes that the rigorous discipline enforced within the Mongol army which made a profound impression the contemporary observers is Unlikely to have surpassed discipline prevalent in the ranks of the shuriken chin, though it does seem that the Mongoose military operations were accompanied by extremely careful suit chittock planning and involved adhesion to the most rigid timetable and such let’s look at the element that supported the regular combat namely planning and psychological warfare one key aspect before the start of a campaign was the collection of maps based on this information to Guatemala select the campsites and the routes of the army this planning also included operation that nowadays would likely be called psyops psychological operations during the detailed planning that preceded every Mongol campaign z-cube messengers were sent to alert spies in the target territories and bring back the first Reports and merchants set out. Carrying propaganda Either to create panic or to persuade dissidents that the invaders are sympathetic to the cause Additionally the Mongols applied a combination of carrot and stick Although the stick was around a heavy one. The Mongols policy was that any city which surrendered without fighting would be spared? But the doors across the Mongol army to suffer casualties could expect no mercy the Mongols usually kept their word and the message to charge from the number of cities that did surrender on demand seemed Speedily to have spread this approach was not limited to cities alone But also for commanders in their units as note burner on offer as a matter of policy the Mongols Encouraged and rewarded such defections and the results had been gratifying many Qin commanders Especially those of non Schwerin origin came over with the unit’s intact This is also linked to the next major factor namely pragmatism probably some of you might wonder how did the Mongols? Conquests at fast lands with cavalry alone Since quite many cities would have blocked their ways and cavalry isn’t the most effective unit when it comes to sieges as you might have Learned in mountain blade while the Mongols actually used a large amount of axillary forces usually from the conquered territories this of course required an effective Administration and this is a very important part because the Mongols were not only successful conquerors They also managed to keep their empires for a substantial amount of time unlike a Napoleon for instance Which are covered in another video does the must have used some effective forms of administration diplomacy and empire management Some even argued that there was some form of grand strategy it more notes that this was highly unlikely The difficulty lies in the absence of any evidence whatsoever for the grand strategic plan except for the events themselves Let the most fury is very attractive but inevitably it remains no more than theory as such I would call this factor pragmatism Because it also fits into the steppe lifestyle which often did not afford various luxuries and convenient in Flexibilities that are more safe and rigid lifestyle brings with it Here are some examples that demonstrate this pragmatism in terms of empire building at first let’s look at auxiliary forces as previously outlined the Mongoose encouraged at enemy forces defected and Using these troops was mandatory for successfully conquering the various lands it would not have been possible to conquer such enormous areas if the Mongol army proper had alone been available for Very early days Chinese troops were used in large numbers in the soon empire of its vast wall cities Its numberless waterways and its rice paddy fields could hardly have been taken by any number of cavalry maneuvers These defective units were needed for several purposes like garrison duties guarding mountain passes and using siege Equipment has such a key contribution of conquered areas was to provide auxiliary troops to the Mongol Empire Especially for siege warfare since the Mongols had limited experience with it and such operations were rata manpower intensive Ideally complete units affected but if necessary new units were raised as well as such it was crucial that an effective administration was in place Ideally an existing one the Mongols were undoubtedly pragmatists. They were not too proud to learn from other peoples Especially from people’s who had both a respectable steppe pedigree and experience in techniques necessary for administering a great Empire This was crucial since the conquered areas at very different customs and laws as the mongols themselves acknowledged Life of the city was different from that of the steppe and many officials for laws Commerce and government were recruited or kept in charge if the defector several officials who defected was surrendered without resistance were routinely left in the old post administering countries and prefectures the principal Responsibilities were to maintain order and mobilize the resources of the areas for the benefit of the Mongolian military machine Another aspect in which the Mongols excelled was communication similar to other points They likely used existing infrastructure and institutions and kept them effective or even improved upon them It would hardly have been possible to rule an empire the size of the mongols effectively without an adequate system of communications such a system called the yum was therefore created by the Mongols and its Organization and efficiency were among the features of the Mongol government that most impressed European observers Note that the same author clarifies that the Mongols likely did not invent the Yom concept yet adopted it and extended it Substantially across the whole empire the system serves several purposes transportation of goods movement of invoice Transmission of royal orders and as a network for intelligence To summarize the Mongols were able to conquer an empire in reach from Korea to Hungary to their military and political capabilities many ft seemed to have been derived from the experiences and habits of living as nomads in the steppe as Such pragmatism mobility and flexibility. We’re key principles default out of necessity as Nomads, they had to move Reger either large herds of different animals which required careful planning due to the requirements of the diverse herds and the limits of the terrain as Such they had a keen talent for logistics additionally the nature of the nomadic Society on a step was such that to speak of the Mongol armies really no more than to speak of the Mongol people in one of its natural aspects For the whole of life was a process of military training The same techniques that were necessary for survival in a herding and hunting environment But with very little adaptation those used in warfare The life in the steppe was harsh and arrows would have dire consequences Not only for the individual but also for a herd and as such the whole community This might explain the extensive focus on discipline The legal pronouncement of Chinggis Khaan as far as they have come down to us seemed mainly concerned with military discipline the extent Fragments indicate that the punishments with disobedience were severe and the military units were held collectively responsible for the behavior of individual members It seems that the mangas and Chinese can later really perform major Innovations yet often adapted or improved existing structures for instance Chinggis Khaan used the traditional Decimal system yet applied a non vast scale to allow for more social control of the different tribes and improve both reality and military effectiveness similarly the Mongols made extensive use of auxiliary forces Especially for Judas their own army was unsuited for like garrison duty and siege warfare Furthermore they also recognized that although the Empire had been conquered on horseback It will not be ruled from horseback as such they often used existing infrastructure institutions Bureaucracy and actively encouraged the defection of officials but also military units and cities yet They also said frightful examples against tolls the pull of stiff resistance yet one final question remains If a majority of the key elements for effectiveness were coming with him the Mongol Society for a long time Why did not refer stomp large part of Asia in the Middle East and Eastern Europe before Chinggis Khaan and others were in power? After all Chinggis, Khaan was not the first one who united the tribes well this was likely due to Chinese cons and orders directing the Mongol army against an external enemy and Thus preventing in fighting the boot disunited as modern points out But if it was not used against external enemies, it would not remain in being for long While I hope you learn something new if you like this contents consider supporting me on patreon remember every single dollar helps Big thank you here to Andrew for refuting the script and trust him for providing further sources as always sauce and description Thank you for watching and see you next

100 thoughts on “Why were the Mongols so effective?

  1. Why not before? We must not forget that we are looking at all of this after the fact.

    Even if the Mongol armies had a unified focus with highly competent people at all levels – and even if they arrived at the right time to kick in the door on many of the existing power centers – they were still, at times, engaging in fairly high risk operations. The passing through the gates of The Great Wall is one such occasion, the march across the desert into the Islamic Caliphate is another.

  2. your pronunciation is horrible at times, where are you from? Its Loyalty, not loyality, distribute, not diistriibute

  3. Why were the mongols so hard to beat in battle? Standing infantry stood no chance against their hit and run tactics yes but if you had an army of longbowmen with wooden stakes launching volleys at their horse archers whenever they come in range to harass you how could they ever beat you? Also, the parthians had skilled horse archers during Roman times, where were they when genghis invaded the Persians? Weren't the persians already familiar with mobile hit and run style tactics?

  4. Why no single word about their mass-killing and genocides? Listening to this video implicits, that the Mongols were a quite nice empire. But they killed – compared by per cent of the world population – much more people than the Nazis did! They raped so much , it is unbelievable. In some areas every 6th person is an ancestor of Genghis Khan. I am disappointed that this factor is not even worth two sentences in a video that is 20 Minutes! 🙁

  5. The reason is very simple, the mongols drank the blood of their horses and had a flat hierarchy. That means they were "Bodybuilders on horses" while the main community was highly suppressed and had therefor a very low amount of testosteron. So the latter was weak and fell prey to the stronger. That is probably the main and only reason

  6. Please cover the Halbe pocket and or the 36th Waffen SS dirlewagner

    There's virtually no information on either online, and they both should be known.

    The Germans put a convicted (in German courts) pedophile in charge of anti partisan and subduing local civilians. Warsaw is their most notorious incident.

  7. Hey I got a question for you: Was there any way at all for the Germans to ever win Barbarossa and with that, probably the whole war? I know you have spoken about Barbarossa alot already and it seems from your points in the various videos that Barbarossa could have never been won in the first place no matter what.

  8. One much of the Empire were bereft of population and not a territory that any population opted to occupy. Secondly the length of time that the Empire existed is reflective of its lack of stability. Unlike other Empires the ME depended heavily on one man who’s death ushered in the beginning of the end of the Empire. Lastly there is a difference between a military Empire and a great civilization that is also a great Empire. The Moguls did not embrace scholarship nor stability that comes with stable centers of power. Conquering civilizations that amassed wealth through learning and knowledge differs from cultivating this through conquest without adopting this knowledge base. The ME left very little in the way of historical legacy that survives to this day. Compare this to the British Empire which has a legacy that defines the worlds educational, economic and political system.
    Yes it military tactics were revolutionary for the time but they are testament to why military Empires are short lived without institutions that outlive it leadership.

  9. Used to a highly nomadic live style.
    Everything they have is mobile and designed to be so.
    Highly efficient in making and breaking camp.
    Very good at securing food and water for both man and beast.
    Good at scouting ahead for resources and the lay of the land in case of battle or to secure a safe encampment area.
    Highly skilled horsemanship.
    Good knowledge of sturdy horse breeds and beast of burden to use for long campaigns and battle.
    Compound bow tech and the knowledge and training to use them.
    Effective battle tactics using highly mobile and fast forces, shock and awe, not to mention good skirmish tactics breaking the enemies ranks up and moral.

    Not to mention, their reputation always preceded them to almost everywhere they went.

    A few Mongole warriors on horseback showing up on the horizon a few days prior to the main force was enough to send most running for the hills, disrupting their ability to fight and secure their own resources to sustain a resistance for any length of time.

    But most of all, their homeland was large and for the uninitiated very inhospitable, it's people moved around because of their nomadic lifestyle not easily set upon by foreign forces, so it didn't use alot of resources and troops to secure Mongolia itself, freeing them on mass for campaigns almost indefinitely.

    After Temüjin united the Mongole tribes the die was cast.

  10. Hungarians had the same tactics 300 years before the Mongols. That is how we took the land from the moravinans, bulgarians and eastern franks, beat the Germans (907, Pressburg) and secured a Hungary … then we learned the German way of fighting and lost to the mongols in 1241.

  11. Superficial, no depth. For those whose learning is not comprehensive, it might be interesting. For others, not so much.

  12. Ghaghis khan, bledy worst barbarian basted , look at the present situation of his country, very pathetic, punishment given by the God.

  13. The whirlwind Mongol campaigns westwards are famous, but what gets less attention is that it took them 40 years to conquer to all of China. The final conquest of the Song Dynasty was not completed until 1279, 20 years after Mongol expansion west had ended. One Chinese fortress even held out for 17 years. By the end of the war, the Mongol armies were just as much infantry armies as anyone else's, and they were for the most part not even composed of Mongols.

  14. Perfect work. But, "tactics" part may need some improvement. Note that, against shielded and armored infantry, horesback archery was not the main killer. In long initial skirmish stage of battle, Mongols used to divide their main force to many independent units, each made of 50-100 horse archers, running all over the battlefield and attacking infantry formations from all angles and approaches, rear and flanks included, with their composite bows. This often does not have an immidiate effect over well protected infantry. But this is something Mongols can continue all the day, as they always had a number of camps in proximity, but still away from the reach of enemy infantry, where the tired men can rest, find food and water, change their tired mount, and replenich their arrows and bows. Even if the arrows are not an immidate danger for infantry, constantly being under pressure does have a certain influence. If you were an enemy infantry fighting a field battle against the mongol horsemen, you would constantly see dust from galloping horses around, multiple groups of attackers appear out of the dust from all directions, rain arrows on your formation, and disappear before you can respond by your own ranged attack. This "pulsing"  attacks waves from multiple directions, makes it impossible to focus fire and the direction of your protective shield wall. It is inevitable under such pressure, that infantry units will change their array, replace their positions, direction of shield Wall, individually. That slowly but consistently drive them away from their battle formation. If this goes hours long, inevitably this will end up with units losing their deployments, crossing eachother in an unorganized way, losing their contact with unit commanders, and the huge formation becomes an almost unctrollable mass. This cancels all the advantage of a defensive infantry formation against the cavalry. At one point the infantry becomes disorganized enough, to be totally uneffective in stopping a well placed cavalry charge. Sometimes a real contact may not even necessary. An instruction of orderly retreat, or any maneuver may turn to rout en mass, even before a real engagement happens. The presence of the cavalry around may be sufficient. The trick is, after long skirmish, if the infantry still holds the ground, the well organized and diciplined cavalry can rapidly gather into one big formation that will hit weakest point of infantry who already lost its organization. The charge at the end of long skirmish must be short and safe contact that will certainly break the enemy formation. If you would have 5 horse per man, full cavalry army, you dont need to risk any other tactic and increase your casualities unnecessarily.

  15. I just watch your videos occasionally. I may watch them on a more regular basis if you shorten them. 12 to 15 minutes for clips such as this Mongol topic would be good. If you have to be more elaborate than label 'I', 'II' and so forth. Thanks!

  16. This is historic BS of highest rate.

    In simplest terns.
    1st. In soviet union, at the end of 1930-s, they tryed to recreate the "great march to west" on actual horses. It failed. They had to ferry horses back on train. And it wasnt some random people. It was Budjonnoi and cavalry corp. The result showed, that horses can not keep up any kind of sustained march to cover thousends of kilometers at a time.
    2nd, It was not possible to sustain this amount of people or animals travelling thousends of kilometers. They would have not been able to carry with them enough food for men or horses. If you have 200000 men with 3 to 5 horses each, thats 1mil animals. every one eats about 5 to 9 kilos of hay. Thats 5 to 9 million kilos or 5000 tons to 9000 tons of hay Per Day. Imagine now getting this amount of hay while fighting your way from Asia to Hungary. The logistics are just plainly impossible.
    3rd. Weapons and metallurgy. You need both to have an army. Mongols did not have any of that. You can not have army without mines, foundries and blacksmiths. Where are they? There where non in mongolia, non in steps.
    4th. Mongols heard about what they have done first time when soviets arrived and started to teach them this history. The story was known to them in rather different version, that has not been told to outside world.

    Dig deeper.

  17. Easy – mounted archers that were effective while riding and their method of food preservation allowed them to operate deeper in foreign territories and maintain strength and morale – food stuffs for all soldiers of unrivaled quality till Napolean. Also, fear played a significant role once word of them spread.

  18. About your Final Question, it has been done four times before by the steppe people. First, by the Sakas and second by the Huns. Then Avars inherited the position, followed by the Turks, Uygurs, Kyrygyz and the Mogols. Sakas, Huns, Turks and Moghols were the only ones to "unite all people that can draw a bow" as in a quote from Bahadır (Mao-tun) the Hun (inventor of the decimal system you talked about). Others vassalized all steppe nomads still. Last of the long line of Great Steppe Kahaganates was the Deşt-i Kıpçak. Among these, the Huns made it farther into Europe than all, Moghols made it farther into China than all and Turks made it farther into Africa than all the others.

  19. why do most civilizations have trouble fielding so much cavalry? while the mongols can have 5 horses survive in regions they invade?

  20. It's interesting that the "Yam" word for the system of communications came into the Russian language. Hence the traditional Russian word for a postal coachman – "ямщик" ("yamschik").

  21. Most people don't have an understanding how medieval (or even modern warfare) works. Most of the "fighting" does not take place in pitched battles. Most of medieval warfare consisted of small raids, ambushes, supply foraging, disruption of supply trains, preventing the enemy from effectively foraging, and reconnaissance. If you could prevent an enemy from foraging you could potentially starve them to death. In this type of "small" or harassment warfare horse arches were the best.

    If they did not want to, the mongols did not have to fight an opposing foot bound army head on at all in order to destroy it. (battl of hattin, and the tumu crisis for examples). They did this by finding out where the other army was, and stripping their predicted path of anything useful (scorched earth). constantly harassing their rearguard to slow the whole army's march to a crawl, which exasperated the need for foraging. Destroy detached groups, (much higher strategic mobility allows you to mass your forces at short notice, the mongol army was never in one place at once, but spread over hundreds of square miles, each individual group raiding and harassing as much as possible.)

    Only once the enemy was weak and completely demoralized did they launch an attack on the main force.

  22. From what I have learn, the khan himself loves Chinese culture, to the point of appointing a Tao religion master as his teacher, a lot of his method came from observing song China and Jing tribe who defeated northern song before the raise of Khan. He successfully develop a system that max the advantage of his army with best of Song, Jing systems and technology. Mongol canons that destroyed many cities in the western conquest was an improvement design by a Song engineer exiled by internal political fighting. It took a lot more years for Mongol to defeat the economically and technically superior (not militarily or politically unified wise) Song empire, then the Chinese section of its huge empire was the very first large section to break away and declare independence. Khans success primary was the defeat of the Jing empire whom once conquered northern China. It too was a tribal people like Mongols but settled and be more civilised after their victory.

  23. This is an excellent summary of the arguments and points related to the success of the Mongol Empire. There is one point however, that was not stressed that I think is essential to the success of the Mongols and Chinggis Khan in particular, merit-based leadership and promotion. The Khan established a clear and consistent rule of merit-based promotion within the ranks of the Mongol Army and subsequently the auxiliary forces that the Mongol absorbed. There were many reports of former enemy forces that had joined the ranks of the Mongols that went on to reach high-level positions. In addition, there were also reports of non-Mongol soldiers taking the initiative as members of the Mongol Army, e.g. the first soldiers to breach the walls of Kiev were of Georgian background.

    Regardless, your presentation was excellent. Thank you!

  24. Easily one of your best videos so far. Interesting to see how the factors that create an effective military force are largely the same regardless of the time period.

  25. Some great thoughts on why the Mongols were so successful. Did you also know that they had a form of amylase enzyme that would help to break down milk in their horses, allowing them to live off them more efficiently?

  26. I loved how you broke the Mongols down. I've read a number of books on them and still learned stuff from watching as always your informative and entertaining videos.

  27. If it weren't for the mongols introducing guns,and gunpowder,cannons,Toilet paper to Europe the Europeans would still be killing each other with swords and javelins,Wiping their shit with their hands.It was Chinese invention and technology that made the Europeans conquer the world like they did.Without Using East Asian inventions and technology Europe would still be a shithole continent stuck in the dark ages people shitting in the streets.Instead of demonizing Mongols are Arabs or turks.Europeans Should be grateful for the Asians advancing their culture.

  28. Kan? Khan is said as HHan.
    And no mongolian says gengis. Its Chingis.
    The arabs couldn't pronounce chingis so they said gengis, and the french popularized the word gengis.

  29. To me it all sounds like they didn't conquer shit, just frighten everyone to "join them" and then they run away, saying everything belongs to them.

  30. In the 13th and 14th centuries, there was no fighting in Mongolia. It was clear that Mongolians would win where they went to fight. However, Mongolians were disappointed with their father's home and lost their unity as pure Mongolian milk and struggled to compete for each other's land and interests. Mongol rivals struggled like a giant valley near the Caspian Sea and the beginning of the decline of Mongolians in the battle of the army.

  31. a large majority of the Mongol army was composed of people they have recruited from conquering other lands which obviously included many Turks, and middle easterners. They would not have been able to successfully maintain such militaristic accomplishments without the people from the lands they conquered.

  32. Everyone overlooks that the smaller size of their horses and their nomadic culture meant that they were much better at logistics than any other army in their time. Aside from their horses being easier to feed as long as pastures were around, most other rations were easily portable, and so were their camps.

    Good luck starving out an army that isn't tied to any fixed location.

  33. A lot of people say that around half of the mongol army was turkic nomadic horsemans just like nomadic nomadic horsemans ?

  34. I just really want to know how the mongolians managed their empire, with it being so huge. There couldn't possibly be enough mongols to maintain such a huge empire when most of them are in the army, and their population not being very big anyway.

  35. I would suggest the book ….. The Tartar Khans Englishman it is a great introduction to the mongol intelligence services and the use it was put to in their conquests

  36. Ancient and medieval warfare don't receive enough focus on the strategic and operational aspects. Really nice to see MHV coming to change that.

  37. Much of early Russian society was shaped by service under Mongol rule. The Russian nobility's habit of exploiting not developing their lands and people came from their duties under the Mongols. Mongols wanted two things, the wealth and resources they required, and no resistance to their rule. Post Mongol Russia split is social structure into rulers / exploiters and peasants /serfs. The peasants / serfs were just animals, milked for the needs of their betters. Imperial Russia was a bit more honest about it. Soviet Russia used the Party, Military, and a huge bureaucacy, the nomenkatura. The works at the bottom had little say in their own lives. One obeyed those above you , and squeezed what you could out of those below. The Mongol model continues down to modern " Peoples Democracies, where the People must obey, and not resist their betters.

  38. Thanks. Very interesting subject. I've often wondered on the true size of Mongol armies and the obvious logistics. I would guess that extra horses and possibly support animals would help observers to over- estimate size. But even if the armies true size was smaller.. it probably would be much larger than most of its adversaries.
    I wonder about the control of conquered administrations. Did the Mongols in-bed countrymen or presumed loyal administrators to maintain control and intelligence. ? It would seem so.. but I have never found a source that has truly studied these details… just ones that talk in platitudes. Thanks again.

  39. All I remember is that the Mongols used fear tactics. They’d say “if you let us in, we won’t kill all of you, but if you don’t, we’ll burn your lands”.

  40. The fact is that nomadic peoples like those of Arabia and the Central Asian steps expand outwordes roughtly every 1000 years this is do to population pressure building up in there homeland, as the hunter gaderer lifestyle can support a smaller population than the one of there naibours they conquere there lands and demand tribute.

  41. Great video. It’s possibly the most insightful one on the subject.

    The only thing I’d add was the fact that they went with what worked. Merit was key amongst individuals and policies. Politics and money could go to hell.

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